Posts relating to regenerative design, transition and co-creation for eco-smart holistic human habitats facilitating a restorative green-blue circular economy of proximity

Saturday, June 11, 2016

Proposals for Settlement-Scale Applications



This is an evolving description of how the GCoT model (Smart Garden City) can be applied in varying circumstances. A general summary of the GCoT model is presented in the Introduction here.

Below it has been attempted to show how this model can function to assist in the amelioration of long-established refugee camps, for example Dadaab in Kenya, which has grown to nearly 330,000 residents and was first established in 1992. More information on Dadaab by clicking here.

The following hyperlinks will take you to an online forum. After clicking the hyperlink, it is best to wait a moment for the page to settle on the intended post. It may be necessary to make a note of the post #number and scroll up or down in the forum to find the post, all posts are numbered.

The following hyperlinked posts aim to explain how the GCoT model may be considered, in a planned response to improving conditions for established refugee camp, or indeed for planning new ones. There are also a lot of related information, articles, videos and links on this forum thread.

All comments, criticisms, questions are welcomed. It is possible to comment here on this blog, and also on the forum. *It takes only two minutes to register on the forum in order to post a comment there, and the forum does not send junk mail or share email addresses with third parties.



GCoT Smart Garden City

What is it? see post #140
 

Why this? see post #141
 

How? see post #142 and #143
 

Who? see post #144
 

Where? also post #144


Refugee Challenge Proposals:

European Social Innovation Competition
Summary presented for #diogochallenge, (Named in memory of Diogo Vasconcelos) - the European Social Innovation Competition, see post #115

What Design Can Do #RefugeeChallenge
Summary presented for #WDCD UNHCR and Ikea foundation What Design Can Do Competition, see post #139


Link to competition entry: https://refugeechallenge.unhcrideas.org/Page/ViewIdea?ideaid=6230&pageSize=6&pageNum=0

Smart Garden City Resources and Further Explainations

GCoT Image Gallery: http://bit.ly/GCoTpics

GCoT Literature review and v2.2 : http://bit.ly/LitRevGCoT

Garden City of Today (GCoT) Version 2.0 booklet: http://bit.ly/GCoT20

 

Social Media

Twitter: www.twitter.com/fractalcities


VIMEO:
https://vimeo.com/109576684  


Comments discussion with an architect
regarding Smart Garden City proposal :  post #154


Selected Diagrams






GCoT Literature Review

The GCoT Model – A Complex Systems Model For Spatio-temporal Settlement Design, Planning, Adaptation, Ecological Restoration, Economic Growth and Biourbanism; Employing Fractal Geometry, Recursion, Complexity, Emergence, Landscape Ecology, Biological Remediation, Agroecology and Central Place Theory

Abstract
Synthesis of related subjects into synergistic models for planning communication can facilitate multi-disciplinary strategy, for adaptation planning. This is relevant for planning and adapting complex systems such as cities and other human population centres. This paper combines three fields within an holistic model proposed for elucidating urban complexity, improving energy efficiency, and for adaptation planning. Idealised models for transport infrastructure, mixed-use spatial design and, green infrastructure for ecosystem services are combined forming a holistic model. This model is presented with reference to peer reviewed articles and other publications. An implementation approach is proposed, showing its scalability, how diversity may be maintained in urban form, and function, reconciled with unity in spatial planning, achieved through participatory urban planning approaches combined with e
stablished methods for ecological landscape restoration to achieve regenerative and sustainable development. A conceptualised, scaled and scalable spatial pattern is presented at city-scale, as an ecologically regenerative “smart” garden city model, and is referred to as the GCoT Model – acronym for Garden City of Today (Busby, 2014). This is presented for prospective use as an operational model and conceptual aid for strategic and adaptation planning, urban design and urban modeling.


Keywords: #Sustainable #Development; #SustainableDevelopment Goals; #SDGs; #Complexity; #FractalGeometry; #CentralPlace; #Transit Orientated; #TOD; #Mixed-use; #Mobility; #Growth; #Emergence; #Walkable; #ActiveTransport; #Recursion; #Biophilic #Design; #Biourbanism; #P4P; #Unified settlement planning; #Scalable; #Urban #sprawl; #Mitigation; #ZeroCarbon; #Sequestration; #Flood resistance; #Resilience; #Agroecology; #Permaculture; Urban Heat Island; #UHI; Homogeneous; Heterogeneous; #Ecological; Meta-habitat; #Proximity; #Transport Orientated #Development; #Transport; Hierarchy; #Multi-modal; #Inter-modal; #MetabolicCity; #ResourceManagement; #WasteManagement; #Waste; #ClosedLoop; #CircularEconomy; #Homeostasis; Dynamic #Equilibrium; Urban #Analogy; #Correspondence; #Transition; Rapid Urbanisation; #Modeling; #EconomicDevelopment; #Retrofitting; #Amelioration; #Innovation; #CollaborativeDesign; #CoDesign; #Participatory Urban Planning; #ParticipatoryPlanning; #Bottom-up development; #Top-down planning; #holistic design; #GardenCities; #SmartCity; #SmartGardenCity.








 Landscape Restoration for Economic Development

Commonland® believes that landscape restoration offers large untapped opportunities for sustainable economic development. To demonstrate this potential, the company develops landscape restoration projects that are based on business cases.
Commonland’s holistic restoration approach combines and connects natural and economic landscape zones and delivers 4 returns®.

Watch the video or visit the website (www.commonland.com) to get to know more about this.




African Presentations


Abstract by John D. Liu Ambassador for Commonland Foundation
SOURCE: https://www.academia.edu/26298241/Presentations_in_Africa


Abstract:
This is documentation from the 2006 Direct Dissemination Effort to share the Lessons learned on the Loess Plateau Rehabilitation and how these can be employed in Africa. The result was that Rwanda rewrote its land use policy immediately and now there is 10 years of data on how that went (8.2 % growth in a global depression, restoration of the headwaters of the White Nile and Congo Rivers, Food Security) and Ethiopia began to shift from food aid to Sustainable Land Management although it took 2 more years. This ultimately shifted 380 million dollars each year to sustainable land management and is I believe the reason that we are not seeing famine during drought in Ethiopia now. Several stars aligned at the time. I had just been named the Rothamsted International Fellow for the Communication of Science by the Rothamsted Research Institute. The Global Environmental Facility asked me to present to the High Level Technical Roundtable at the GEF Ministers meeting, DFID and the World Bank were interested in my sharing the results of the work they had funded on the Loess Plateau.




Urban Planning

PracticalAction : Participatory Urban Planning toolkit based on the Kitale experience

WEB LINK : http://policy.practicalaction.org/component/dspace/item/participatory-urban-planning-toolkit-base-on-the-kitale-experience


This toolkit provides a step-by-step guide to the main processes necessary in developing community action plans in low-income and slum communities. It also gives an account of how these processes were used in the town of Kitale, Kenya. It is distills the long-standing experience of Practical Action staff and their partners working in mobilising poor urban communities and creating long-lasting partnerships with Local Authorities.

PracticalAction :
Peoples' Plans Into Practice (PPP): Kisumu and Kitale
WEB LINK : http://practicalaction.org/peoples-plans-into-practice-kisumu-and-kitale


PracticalAction : Promoting Examples of Participatory Local Empowerment in Urban Planning (PEOPLE UP)
WEB LINK : http://practicalaction.org/participatory-local-empowerment-in-urban-planning-people-up


Thursday, May 12, 2016

GCoT Literature Review

The GCoT Model – A Complex Systems Model For Spatio-temporal Settlement Design, Planning, Adaptation, Ecological Restoration, Economic Growth and Biourbanism; Employing Fractal Geometry, Recursion, Complexity, Emergence, Landscape Ecology, Biological Remediation, Agroecology and Central Place Theory


Abstract
Synthesis of related subjects into synergistic models for planning communication can facilitate multi-disciplinary strategy, for adaptation planning. This is relevant for planning and adapting complex systems such as cities and other human population centres. This paper combines three fields within an holistic model proposed for elucidating urban complexity, improving energy efficiency, and for adaptation planning. Idealised models for transport infrastructure, mixed-use spatial design and, green infrastructure for ecosystem services are combined forming a holistic model. This model is presented with reference to peer reviewed articles and other publications. An implementation approach is proposed, showing its scalability, how diversity may be maintained in urban form, and function, reconciled with unity in spatial planning, achieved through participatory urban planning approaches combined with established methods for ecological landscape restoration to achieve regenerative and sustainable development. A conceptualised, scaled and scalable spatial pattern is presented at city-scale, as an ecologically regenerative “smart” garden city model, and is referred to as the GCoT Model – acronym for Garden City of Today (Busby, 2014). This is presented for prospective use as an operational model and conceptual aid for strategic and adaptation planning, urban design and urban modeling.


https://www.academia.edu/24779851/The_GCoT_Model_A_Complex_Systems_Model_For_Spatio-temporal_Settlement_Design_Planning_Adaptation_Ecological_Restoration_Economic_Growth_and_Biourbanism_Employing_Fractal_Geometry_Recursion_Complexity_Emergence_Landscape_Ecology_Biological_Remediation_Agroecology_and_Central_Place_Theory


Keywords: #Sustainable #Development; #SustainableDevelopment Goals; #SDGs; #Complexity; #FractalGeometry; #CentralPlace; #Transit Orientated; #TOD; #Mixed-use; #Mobility; #Growth; #Emergence; #Walkable; #ActiveTransport; #Recursion; #Biophilic #Design; #Biourbanism; #P4P; #Unified settlement planning; #Scalable; #Urban #sprawl; #Mitigation; #ZeroCarbon; #Sequestration; #Flood resistance; #Resilience; #Agroecology; #Permaculture; Urban Heat Island; #UHI; Homogeneous; Heterogeneous; #Ecological; Meta-habitat; #Proximity; #Transport Orientated #Development; #Transport; Hierarchy; #Multi-modal; #Inter-modal; #MetabolicCity; #ResourceManagement; #WasteManagement; #Waste; #ClosedLoop; #CircularEconomy; #Homeostasis; Dynamic #Equilibrium; Urban #Analogy; #Correspondence; #Transition; Rapid Urbanisation; #Modeling; #EconomicDevelopment; #Retrofitting; #Amelioration; #Innovation; #CollaborativeDesign; #CoDesign; #Participatory Urban Planning; #ParticipatoryPlanning; #Bottom-up development; #Top-down planning; #holistic design; #GardenCities; #SmartCity; #SmartGardenCity.

Friday, April 3, 2015

Regenerative Urbanism

Regenerative design is a process-oriented systems theory based approach to design. The term "regenerative" describes processes that restore, renew or revitalize their own sources of energy and materials, creating sustainable systems that integrate the needs of society with the integrity of nature. The basis is derived from systems ecology with a closed loop input–output model or a model in which the output is greater than or equal to the input with all outputs viable and all inputs accounted for. Regenerative design is the biomimicry of ecosystems that provide for all human systems to function as a closed viable ecological economics system for all industry. It parallels ecosystems in that organic (biotic) and synthetic (abiotic) material is not just metabolized but metamorphosed into new viable materials. Ecosystems and regeneratively designed systems are holistic frameworks that seek to create systems that are absolutely waste free. The model is meant to be applied to many different aspects of human habitation such as urban environments, buildings, economics, industry and social systems. Simply put, it is the design of ecosystems and human behavior, or culture that function as human habitats.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regenerative_design



Conception régénératrice est une théorie des systèmes approche orientée processus à base de concevoir. Le terme de "régénération" décrit les processus qui rétablissent, renouveau et de revitalisation de leurs propres sources d'énergie et de matières, créant des systèmes durables qui intègrent les besoins de la société avec l'intégrité de la nature. La base est dérivée de systèmes écologie avec un modèle d'entrée-sortie en boucle fermée ou un modèle dans lequel la sortie est supérieure ou égale à l'entrée de toutes les sorties et toutes les entrées viables en compte. Conception régénératrice est le biomimétisme des écosystèmes qui fournissent pour tous les systèmes humains de fonctionner comme un système d'économie écologique viable fermé pour toute l'industrie. Il parallèle écosystèmes dans cette organique (biologique) et synthétique (abiotique) matériau est non seulement métabolisé, mais métamorphosé en nouveaux matériaux viables. Les écosystèmes et les systèmes conçus par régénération sont cadres holistiques qui cherchent à créer des systèmes qui sont absolument sans déchets. Le modèle est destiné à être appliqué à de nombreux aspects différents de l'habitation humaine tels que les environnements urbains, des bâtiments, de l'économie, de l'industrie et des systèmes sociaux. Autrement dit, il est la conception des écosystèmes et le comportement humain, la culture ou qui fonctionnent comme des habitats humains.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regenerative_design



Image source: ow.ly/Kla7301DTzz
Original link: http://www.triplepundit.com/2016/06/organisation-ready-get-future-fit/?platform=hootsuite



Idealised Transport Model and Simplfied Hierarchy of Transport Systems

Modèle de Transport Idéalisée et un Système de Hiérarchie des Transports Simplifiée


The first part of the article briefly presents an idealized, multi-modal, inter-modal transit model for Smart City systems thinking.

La première partie de l'article présente brièvement un modèle multi-modale, inter-modale de transit idéalisée pour reflexions de la théorie des systémes Smart City.

The second part of this article discusses in plain terms, the hierarchy of transport methods, and how we interact with transportation systems.

La deuxième partie de cet article traite en termes clairs de la hiérarchie des modes de transport, et de la façon dont nous interagissons avec les systèmes de transport.


Part 1 - Idealised Transport Model

Partie 1 - Une Modèle de transport idéalisé



Smart Garden City 
Transport Model
Modèle de Transport



The following 
multi-modal, inter-modal, multi-scale, modular model aims to outline transit routes, nodes and methods in an idealized construct, to act as a conceptual aid to planning and design.

Le suivant; multi- modale , entre - modale , multi-échelle , le modèle modulaire vise à définir des itinéraires de transit , des nœuds et des méthodes dans une construction idéalisée , d'agir comme une aide conceptuelle à la planification et conception. 

"Models are abstraction, simplifications of the real thing" (Batty, 2015) whilst "essentially, all models are wrong, but some are useful" (Box and Draper, 1987 in Batty 2015) Batty (2015) also considers they "we need models because they impose a framework, an order on our thinking about the present and the future that imposes a discipline on how we try to address problems of land use and transportation rigorously... Models are thus there to inform the debate and there is still the prospect of using them conditionally to address 'what-if' scenarios.." (Batty, 2015).

" Les modèles sont l'abstraction , des simplifications de la chose réelle " ( Batty , 2015) tandis que " l'essentiel , tous les modèles sont faux , mais certains sont utiles " ( Box et Draper , 1987 à Batty 2015) Batty (2015 ) considère également que " nous avons besoin modèles parce qu'ils imposent un cadre , une commande sur notre réflexion sur le présent et de l'avenir qui impose une discipline sur la façon dont nous essayons de résoudre les problèmes d'utilisation des terres et le transport de rigueur ... les modèles sont donc là pour éclairer le débat et il ya encore la perspective de les utiliser conditionnellement à répondre pour « aux et si » scénarios .. " ( Batty , 2015) .

This model is intended to illustrate an idealized transport system, servicing a Mixed-Use, TOD urban area (Transit Orientated Development - TOD), with travel nodes within a walking distance that is accessible for all ages and mobilities, such as  elderly and parents with young children, for example. 


Ce modèle cherche à illustrer un système de transport servant un développement-usage-mixte et orienté sur les transits (transit oriented développement - TOD), avec des nœuds de voyage sur une distance accessibles à pieds pour toutes les âges et mobilités.

All the routes are direct - conforming to what we know to be the most direct route, therefore the most energy efficient using current transport methods.

Tous les itinéraires sont directs pour un rendement maximal - conforme à ce que nous savons être la voie la plus directe, donc la plus éconergétiques utilisant les méthodes de transport actuels.


The first image shows the complete transport model, set within the Smart Garden City model, this is then broken-down and presented in successive images to clarify the networks within the model.

La première image montre le modèle de transport dans son intégralité comme indiqué de Ville Jardin Intelligente (Smart Garden City), cette opération est alors détaille et présenté dans les images successives pour clarifier les réseaux au sein du modèle.

It is proposed that the population of vehicles is limited to prevent the occurrence of congestion, but personal autonomy is maintained by multi-modal, intermodal travel on an extensive network, with the availability of bicycles and electric cars at the local level. It is envisaged that the AutoLib-style electric car network can be employed providing non rail, mechanized transit.

Il est proposé que le nombre de véhicules est limité pour prévenir l'apparition de la congestion, mais l'autonomie personnelle est maintenue par le multi-modale, Voyage intermodal sur un vaste réseau, avec à disponibilité des vélos et des voitures électriques au niveau local. Il est prévu que le réseau de voiture électrique tel que AutoLib peut être utilisé pour des transport, non-ferroviaires, mais  mécanisés.

Because of its fractal design, this can be replicated and expanded without detriment to the established whole. This modular approach may also mean that costs and quantities for implementation can be  more easily projected. This type of transport network may also be a way to consider systematic urban extension; avoiding problems arising from incremental urban sprawl (for the management of urban sprawl).

En raison de sa conception de fractale, ce qui peut être reconduit et étendu sans porter préjudice à l'ensemble établie. Cette approche modulaire peut également signifier que les coûts et les quantités pour la mise en œuvre peuvent être plus facilement projetées. Ce type de réseau de transport peut aussi être un moyen d'envisager l'extension urbaine systématique; éviter les problèmes découlant de l'étalement urbain incrémentale (pour la gestion de l'étalement urbain).

The presented model does not use combustion engines within the city (excluding any national rail diesel trains), but relies exclusively on electrical vehicles, charged or powered by electrical energy supplied hypothetically, by clean energy sources (Hydro, Solar, Wind etc). Energy supply shall be discussed in a later article. (As from 1st January 2017, ALL Dutch trains are powered by 100% wind energy for example).

Le modèle présenté n'utiliser pas les moteurs de combustion au sein de la ville (excluant les trains nationaux utilisant le diesel ferroviaire), mais est exclusivement fondée sur les véhicules électriques, chargés ou alimentés par l'énergie électrique fournie par hypothèse, par des sources d'énergie propre (hydraulique, solaire, vent, etc.). L'approvisionnement en énergie doit être discuté dans un article ultérieur.

The transport system is Multi-modal; aiming to provide for a range of journey types, determined by purpose, distance and intended destination - whether within or out of the city. The network is linked at "key points" or "central places" where multi-modal stations provide an Inter-modal travel system.

Le système de transport est multi-modale; visant à fournir une gamme de types de parcours, déterminée par objectif, la distance et la destination - tant à l'intérieur ou à l'extérieur de la ville. Le réseau est relié à des « endroits  clés » ou « lieux centraux » les stations multi-modales fournissent un système de Voyage Inter-modal.

Commercial (Materials, Merchandise and Waste) routes are provided as an independent network, to separate domestic journeys from industrial and commercial (Merchandise/Waste) haulage journeys. Waste it taken for recycling in the metabolic centers in the periphery.

Il ya deux réseaux distincts de voyage. Un pour les trajets domestiques. La deuxième pour les activités commerciales. Les activités commerciales telles que l'alimentation, la collecte, le transport de matières et de marchandises, ainsi que l'évacuation des déchets. Marchandise / Matériaux de marchés ou pour de fabrication. Les déchets son prises pour le recyclage et le compostage - dans les centres métaboliques dans la périphérie.

Each travel node is a station at the "central place" of a given urban area within the Smart Garden City.

Chaque nœud de Voyage est une station à la "place centrale" (lieux centraux) d'une zone urbaine donnée dans le Smart Garden City (Ville Jardin Intelligente).

The level of the intersection, on the hierarchy of transport methods, determines the type of urban function - such as business, retail, residential and so on, although these definitions are blurred by mixed use development (to be described in a forth-coming article). 

Le niveau d'intersection, sur la hiérarchie des modes de transport, détermine le type de fonction urbaine - tels que le commerce, la vente au détail, résidentiel et ainsi de suite, bien que ces définitions soient floues par le développement à usage mixte (qui sera décrit dans un article ci-venir )

The hierarchy of transport methods are as follows:
La hierarchie des méthodes de transport : 

FOOT - Brown, and all routes - Pedestrian (A piéds - brun et tous les routes)

BIKE - Brown, and all routes - Bicycle (A vélo - brun et tous les routes)

CAR - White routes  - Autolib and City Cycle - electric vehicle and Bike share (Blanc - pour les voitures de partage - Autolib, et stations Autolib et Velib)

TUBE - Yellow routes - Tube/Metro - (Underground) (Metro-locale - routes jaune)

TRAM - Orange routes - Tram/Light rail (Overland) (routes Orange - Tramway au train léger sur voies ferrées)

TRAIN - Blue routes - National Rail (routes Bleu - Lignes de train nationales)

COMMERCIAL - Magenta routes - Light rail, for distribution/collection of products and "waste" materials.  (routes Magenta - Train léger sur voie ferrée, pour la distribution / collecte des produits et des matériaux «déchets».)

Ci-dessous le modèle du transport complet idéalisé (à échelle de la ville):

Smart Garden City - Transport System - Transit Orientated Development

Above is the complete idealized model. It features a hierarchy of transportation methods, at a range of scales - in reflection of the assertions made in the introduction, namely that,

" The purpose, range and destination of our journey determines the optimal mode of transport or combination thereof. "

Therefore we see:

  1.  a range of transport networks at different scales
  2. a selection of destinations marked by stations at "central places"
  3. a selection of vehicles and two distinct networks - one commercial, the other primarily public or domestic.
Est au-dessus du modèle idéalisé complète. Il dispose d'une hiérarchie des modes de transport, à une gamme d'échelles - dans la réflexion des affirmations faites dans l'introduction, à savoir que,

« Le but, la portée et la destination de notre voyage détermine le mode optimal de transport ou combinaison de ceux-ci. »

Par conséquent, nous voyons:

  1. une gamme de réseaux de transport à différentes échelles
  2. une sélection de destinations marquées par des stations au «lieux centraux»
  3. une sélection de véhicules et de deux réseaux distincts - un commercial, l'autre essentiellement public ou domestique.


Batty (2015) refers to a 'four-step process' - trip generation, trip distribution, modal split, and then assignment.

Batty (2015) fait référence à un « processus en quatre étapes » - la génération de déplacements, la distribution de voyage, la répartition modale, puis affectation.


Below a selection of images will de-construct the transport networks and clearly define their location and potential functions within the city. Although the functions are by no means exhaustive.

Ci-dessous une sélection d'images sera dé-construire les réseaux de transport et de définir clairement leur position et les fonctions potentielles au sein de la ville. Bien que les fonctions ne soient nullement exhaustive.

National Line

Extra-city travel routes - national rail linkages from outside the city, into the city, with stops at major nodes within the centre and satellite centers.

Itinéraires de voyage extra-ville - liaisons ferroviaires nationaux de l'extérieur de la ville, dans la ville, avec des arrêts dans les principaux nœuds dans les centres de centres et par satellite.

Smart Garden City - National Rail Connections - TOD

Citywide Light Rail

Trams on greenways work well in many cities; Bilbao, Le Mans and so on.

Tramways sur voies vertes fonctionnent bien dans de nombreuses villes; Bilbao, Le Mans et ainsi de suite.

Smart Garden City - Citywide Light Rail - TOD

Vale Underground

Seeing as this is an idealized city, and to preserve some green space above ground, why not have an underground train system - costs of installation ? Less than all the inhabitants buying cars, if we are speaking in terms of money spend, materials spent, fuels and space, as a collective species inhabiting a planet.

Installing such a network in an established settlement of course is tricky, however the tier or the area serviced by this network can still be considered on the hierarchy of transportation. As a more localized service or network. This hypothetical city is divided into seven "Vales" but similar subdivisions exist within existing cities and each can be allocated a transport subdivision.

Alternative vehicles may simply be buses or mini buses, electric buses, trams and so on.

Métro. Véhicules alternatifs peuvent être simplement bus ou mini-bus, les bus, les tramways électriques et ainsi de suite.




District Electric Car Share and City Bike

I will let Wikipedia explain the electric car sharing scheme such as the one in Paris - Autolib, this kind of scheme may utilize different types of rechargeable non-rail vehicles to enable autonomous (non-rail) vehicular transportation. 

Je vais laisser Wikipedia expliquer le système de partage de voiture électrique comme celui de Paris - Autolib, ce type de régime peut utiliser différents types de véhicules non ferroviaires rechargeables pour permettre autonome (non ferroviaire) le transport par véhicules.

This car-share technique can limit car numbers in the city, but preserve personal mobility needs.

Cette technique d'auto-partage peut limiter les nombre des voitures dans la ville, mais de préserver les besoins de mobilité personnelle.

For instance, family and friends are coming to stay and we need to pick them up from the station with their bags, or we have something particularly heavy to collect and deliver right to someone's doorstep - take an electric car or buggy... electric vehicles can range from 4x4 quads and Mules to micro cars, family cars, milk floats and so on.

Par exemple, la famille et les amis viennent pour rester et nous avons besoin d'aller les chercher à la gare avec leurs sacs, ou si nous avons quelque chose de particulièrement lourde pour collecter et livrer directement à la porte de quelqu'un - prendre une voiture électrique ou poussette ... véhicules électriques peut varier de quads 4x4 et des mules pour micro voitures, voitures familiales, flotteurs de lait et ainsi de suite.

The bike-share exists in many cities and works well - the Boris Bikes of London and the Velib of Paris

Le vélo-partage existe dans de nombreuses villes et fonctionne bien - les vélos de Boris, Londres, et le Vélib de Paris



The image below indicates the distribution of car/bike share ports in the city - they are located at central district stations where users can also take the underground, some of the stations also allow crossovers to city tram, and national rail.

L'image ci-dessous indique la répartition des ports de part de voiture / vélo dans la ville - ils sont situés dans les stations du district central où les utilisateurs peuvent également prendre le métro, certaines des stations permettent également aux croisements de tramway de la ville, et ferré national.



Pedestrian and Cycle Network

With every good transport system comes ample pedestrian and cycleways - these are on the lowest, yet most detailed and abundant tier of the hierarchy, covering the city as a silky-fine weave

Avec tous les système de transport bon vient amplement piétons et pistes cyclables - ceux-ci sont sur le bas, encore plus détaillée et abondante niveau de la hiérarchie, couvrant la ville comme une armure soyeuse-fine


Pedestrian to Transport Connectivity

The image below shows how transport nodes are situated at key points or "central places" in the city - where two districts converge, where routes cross and so on, maximising coverage, accessibility and therefore mobility, to allow for Transit Orientated Development.

L'image ci-dessous montre comment les nœuds de transport sont situés à des points clés ou «lieux centraux» de la ville - où deux districts convergent, où les routes se croisent et ainsi de suite, la couverture en maximisant, l'accessibilité et la mobilité, donc pour permettre Transit Oriented Development.

It may appear that we do not need cars in this situation, however there remains great scope for industries to manufacture a great many alternative modes of transport and still for global export, designing and building vehicles for Smart Transport systems.

Il peut sembler que nous ne devons pas les voitures dans cette situation, mais il reste de grandes possibilités pour les industries de la fabrication d'un grand nombre de modes de transport alternatifs et encore pour l'exportation mondiale, la conception et les véhicules de construction pour les systèmes de transport intelligent.


Transit Orientated Development

At no point in the hypothetical city, in the built environment, is a pedestrian more than 500m from the nearest transport node.

À aucun moment dans la ville hypothétique, dans l'environnement construit, est un piéton plus de 500 m à partir du nœud de transport le plus proche.


City Service (Commercial) Transport Network

As discussed on the Smart Cities Sustainable Cities Collective Webinar (@sustaincities) presented by @DavidKThorpe on 9th April 2015, it is virtually inconceivable to design a city where its residents and visitors rely exclusively on public transportation, for commercial operations to rely on this too.

il est pratiquement inconcevable de concevoir une ville où ses résidents et visiteurs comptent exclusivement sur le transport public, pour des opérations commerciales à compter sur cela aussi.

As Pratik Dave (@homeisland), Independent Consultant in Sustainable Urban Transport Programs commented; commercial activities such as deliveries are often carried out during the night and early hours when traffic is greatly reduced.

activités commerciales telles que les livraisons sont souvent effectuées pendant la nuit et tôt lorsque le trafic est fortement réduit.

For these reasons and for others related to waste collection and recycling, this idealized city has a separate commercial rail line, connected to satellite or periphic metabolic distribution depots. Permitting 24 hour delivery/dispatch without the hindrance of congestion and accessibility.

Pour ces raisons et pour d'autres liés à la collecte des déchets et le recyclage, cette ville idéalisée a une ligne ferroviaire commerciale distincte, reliée au satellite ou dépôts de distribution métaboliques periphic. Permettant 24 heures de livraison / expédition sans l'entrave de la congestion et d'accessibilité.

This commercial line collects and distributes throughout the city, acting like the blood system in many ways, in our bodies - supplying nutrients and taking away waste products for processing.

Cette ligne commerciale recueille et distribue dans toute la ville, agissant comme le système sanguin à bien des égards, dans notre corps - apport de nutriments et enlever les déchets produits pour le traitement.

There are points in the city such as markets where goods and materials are delivered, exchanged and sold. These stations, it is conceived, also have storage facilities for distribution and so on. This commercial line is directly connected to the National inter-city lines (blue) to facilitate import and export of goods and materials.

Il ya des points de la ville tels que les marchés où les biens et les matériaux sont livrés, échangés et vendus. Ces stations, il est conçu, ont également des installations de stockage pour la distribution et ainsi de suite. Cette ligne commerciale est directement relié aux lignes nationales inter-ville (bleu) pour faciliter l'importation et l'exportation de biens et de matériaux.


Théorie des lieux centraux de Christaller décrit comment «les établissements fonctionnent comme des« lieux centraux »offrant des services aux régions avoisinantes." (Wiki)

La théorie de la place centrale peut aider dans le développement de TOD et les associations entre les nœuds de transport, des routes et des fonctions urbaines. Si l'on considère «colonies» que les centres au sein d'une ville existante - comme un centre commercial, centre d'affaires ou une zone industrielle, nous pouvons commencer à voir comment il ya des «lieux centraux» au sein de chaque établissement à pratiquement chaque échelle.

Place Central théorie a été avancée par le groupe de recherche de l'Université française Comte ThéMA, avec Chef d'Projet Professeur Pierre Frankhauser, en travaillant sur un projet financé par le gouvernement français et l'Union européenne intitulé PREDIT (Programme de recherche le et d'innovation Dans les transports terrestres) traduit par "Le Programme de Recherche et Innovation sur les transports terrestres. "

ThéMA, Prof. Frankhauser articles des journals qui décrit les développements concernant fractale, de transit orienté, la théorie de la place centrale, est intitulé «Une approche multi-échelle (Multi-Fractal) pour une stratégie de planification systémique à partir d'une région à une échelle architecturale." Ce document et d'autres sont disponibles via la base de données de recherche en libre accès 'archives HAL manifeste de la France.

Ainsi nous pouvons voir qu'il ya un besoin pour un service de TOD "Central Places," à la pollution de l'adresse, la congestion, l'efficacité économique, etc.

Le système de transport doit être cohérente, et, idéalement, un service toutes les régions du contexte urbain. Il doit se connecter aux réseaux de transport plus larges, régionaux et nationaux.
Elle doit être exempte de carbone, ou net-zéro carbone, il doit être facile à naviguer et utilisable par tous les niveaux d'âge et de mobilité.

Le système doit être extensible sans porter préjudice à l'ensemble - comme nous l'avons vu que les extensions ponctuelles aux infrastructures de transport, sans planification et de l'expertise adéquate a massifs effets d'entraînement - il peut exacerber les défis de la pollution, de la mobilité et de la congestion et de couper les zones de la ville si pas correctement planifié.

Part Two - Hierarchy and Usage


To travel from point A to point B, the ideal is one mode of transport at sustained speed from A - B with no stops or change overs.

When we travel short distances we use different means of transport to when we travel over great distances.

The purpose, distance and destination of our journey determines the optimal mode of transport or combination thereof.  

Getting to the moon, necessitates a space vehicle, getting deep into the jungle may necessitate a helicopter, 4x4, animals and of course, traveling by foot.

Getting from our home to work, requires less specialist transport methods than getting to the moon.

All very obvious, but considering these statements and looking at hierarchies of transportation methods can help determine the best combination of means for navigating and traveling within a city or geographical area.

If considering transportation for a city, we may seek the most efficient, fastest method or combination of methods, that is safe, reliable, sustainable and affordable.

When traveling to the moon, the levels of costs, durability and safety greatly differ from domestic journeys.



Without spending too much time on a diagram...
























We can see there is a hierarchy of transport methods

These can be arranged by:
  • Luxury/Cost
  • Convenience/Accessibility
  • Number of vehicles/users
  • Carbon emissions
and so on...

Detailed info-graphics are available, searching on the net.



So we can say there is a hierarchy of transportation methods, ranging from pedestrian to space travel.

On the whole we use methods lower down in the hierarchy, with greater emphasis on land-based travel. The most people travel by foot, the least travel by space.

We can look at journey types. In getting from destination A to B we may use a variety of methods. We can say that most journeys begin by foot, and end by foot, with a combination of pedal and motor vehicle in between.

A typical journey to work in an urban area may be:

Foot

Foot - Bike - Foot

Foot - Car - Foot

Foot - Tube/Metro - Foot

Foot - Bus - Foot

Foot - Tube/Metro - Bus - Foot

and so on...


In a rural area this may differ slightly

Foot

Foot - Bike - Foot

Foot - Car/Bus - Foot   and so on...



For international business, a greater range of methods may be employed getting from A to B:

Foot - Taxi - Foot - Aeroplane - Foot - Taxi - Foot


Or for a foreign holiday, again a great range of methods employed:

Foot - Taxi - Coach - Aeroplane - Coach - Taxi - Foot          and so on...


A range of methods of transportation are employed for different purposes and journey types, domestic, commercial and business.

For a city, one mode of transport at sustained speed from A - B with no stops or change overs is the ideal.

It has been determined that Transit Orientated Developments (TODs) aim to permit this, with the city serviced by transport nodes within walking range.

"TODs generally are located within a radius of one-quarter to one-half mile (400 to 800 m) from a transit stop, as this is considered to be an appropriate scale for pedestrians, thus solving the last mile problem."
(Wikipedia)

For a transport system to utilize only one method of transportation is limiting. Therefore the ideal of
"one mode of transport at sustained speed from A - B with no stops or change overs" is presently, overly simplistic and idealistic; save teleportation - however, work continues on Bell's inequality theorem!

In traveling around or across a city, we use varying degrees of transport methods. We walk to a travel node (station) and then board the vehicle which will take us to, either within walking distance of our destination, or to another station where we will change (routes or type of vehicle) in order to get us closer to our destination. There may be one or multiple changes in the course of our journey.

Christaller's Central Place Theory describes how "settlements function as 'central places' providing services to surrounding areas." (Wiki) 

Central Place theory can assist in the development of TODs and the associations between transport nodes, routes and urban function. If we consider 'settlements' as centers within an existing city - such as a retail centre, business hub or an industrial zone, we can begin to see how there are "central places" within every settlement at virtually every scale.

Central Place theory has been advanced by the French Comte University research group ThéMA, working on a project funded by the French Government and EU entitled PREDIT (le Programme de recherche et d’innovation dans les transports terrestrestranslated as "The Research and Innovation Programme on Terrestrial Transport."


A journal paper which describes developments regarding fractal, transit orientated, central place theory, is entitled "A multi-Scale (Multi-Fractal) approach for a systemic planning strategy from a regional to an architectural scale." This paper and others are available via the open access research database 'HAL archives overt' France. 

So we can see that there is a need for a TOD servicing "Central Places," to address pollution, congestion, economic efficiency etc. 

The transport system needs to be coherent, and ideally, service all areas of the urban context. It must connect to wider, regional and national transport networks.

It must be carbon free, or net-zero carbon, it must be easy to navigate and usable by all age and mobility levels.

The system must be expandable without detriment to the whole - as we have seen that piecemeal extensions to transport infrastructure, without adequate planning and expertise has massive knock-on effects - it can exacerbate the challenges of pollution, mobility and congestion and cut off areas of the city if not properly planned.




Thursday, April 2, 2015

Ecosystem Design for Community Settlement Planning

Ecosystem Design using Pattern Language

-Using forest ecology as analogy to define ecosystem planning for settlement design / urban planning


It is possible to look at (observe and study) complete functioning climax ecosystems, to identify forms and functions within this climax community:

Forms: (plants, animals, structures - trees, rocks, fungi, microbes etc)
Functions: (nitrogen fixers, decomposers, self-seeders, perennials, pollinators, burrowers, scavengers, predators, herbivores etc).

[​IMG]
Image : The form and functions of a chicken. source: http://www.fallbrookpermaculture.com/chickens/

With this recipe of forms and functions which make up the 'dish' that is a climax ecosystem, we can see how ecosystems evolve, in a process - ecosystem processes, enabling the emergence of successive support systems (ecosystem services) which enable further, yet more complex energetic (economic) and cultivational (cultural) processes (activties) to take place.

Using a forest ecology as an example, this is achieved through a combination of processes referred to as biological succession, leading to a state of dynamic equilibrium and therefore, self perpetuation.



successive layers of processes and functions that facilitate the emergence of increasingly complex support systems for increasingly complex organisms to exists - from single cell, microbial, fungal, multi-cellular, vegetative and insectory to fish, reptilian and mammalian.
The yield of an ecological system is theoretically unlimited, only limited by limiting factors, resources can be intentionally supplied by human intervention in an ecological system, simple forms of cultivation / silviculture , or positive human interventions are:

habitat creation and restoration ecology e.g via:
the addition/creation of soil and humus - composting, in order that plants can grow
introducing seeds, plants, trees to speed up natural processes of migration in order to create biodiversity
introduction of beneficial insects - pollinators and predators to improve pollination and biological pest control
introduction of fish repltiles and animals as active agents in ecosystem processes and as support species for other organisms, including humans.

Soil, plants, insects, trees, animals and geological features all perform ecosystic services, all form part of the support systems foir increasing complex forms and functions of a living ecological system.

A very simplified example would be introducing soil supports plants, including planbts supports herbivores, introducing herbivores supports decomposition decomposition feeds the soil, which feeds planst which feeds herbivores...

[​IMG]

Thus we know by observation and understanding what/which components are present and what functions and processes exist within the ecosystem. there is no waste in nature, in natural processes from molecular to landscape or regional events, there is no waste, only change this is a law of thermodynamics.

There are universal transferable concepts, for both form and functions.

Universal Forest Structure
[​IMG]
Image Source: http://chears.org/foodforest/about/food-forests/

Forest Gardening see a summary and Knowledgebase  see also here

In the diagram above, we can see a typical 7-layered forest system, comprised of (plant examples given for temperate climates)
  1. Climax Layer - Upper Canopy (Sweet Chestnut, Cherry, Pear, Victoria Plum)
  2. Small Tree Layer - Lower Canopy or Sub-Canopy (Hazel, Crab Apple, Fig, Medlar, - dwarfing trees)
  3. Climbers and Vines (Kiwi, Grape, Passion Fruit, Runner Beans)
  4. Shrubs, and understorey bushes (Blackcurrant, Gooseberry, Raspberry, Eleagnus)
  5. Herbaceous perenennials and annuals (Mint, Chives, Fennel, Rhubarb)
  6. Ground Cover (Strawberries, Clover, Ramsons)
  7. Root Layer - Roots and Rhizosphere ( Parsnips, Welsh Onion, Ground Nut, Garlic and Chives, Jerusalem Artichoke)
So this structure or assembly of 'Form' is universal - common to all forest systems. We can go anywhere on the planet and find the same 7 layers (there can be more layers in more complex systems). The difference being the species which form the layers. In temperate forests we will observe one set of species, in a tropical climate a completely different pallette of plants.

Universal Forest Functions
[​IMG]Image Source: Permaculture Designers' Manual - Bill Mollison 1988 via http://www.wegrowfromhere.com/